2015 Articles

MacRae SL, Croken MM, Calder RB, Aliper A, Milholland B, White RR, Zhavoronkov A, Gladyshev VN, Seluanov A, Gorbunova V, Zhang ZD, Vijg J. (2015) DNA repair in species with extreme lifespan differences. Aging (Albany NY) 7, 1171-1184.

AbstractDifferences in DNA repair capacity have been hypothesized to underlie the great range of maximum lifespans among mammals. However, measurements of individual DNA repair activities in cells and animals have not substantiated such a relationship because utilization of repair pathways among animals-depending on habitats, anatomical characteristics, and life styles-varies greatly between mammalian species. Recent advances in high-throughput genomics, in combination with increased knowledge of the genetic pathways involved in genome maintenance, now enable a comprehensive comparison of DNA repair transcriptomes in animal species with extreme lifespan differences. Here we compare transcriptomes of liver, an organ with high oxidative metabolism and abundant spontaneous DNA damage, from humans, naked mole rats, and mice, with maximum lifespans of ~120, 30, and 3 years, respectively, with a focus on genes involved in DNA repair. The results show that the longer-lived species, human and naked mole rat, share higher expression of DNA repair genes, including core genes in several DNA repair pathways. A more systematic approach of signaling pathway analysis indicates statistically significant upregulation of several DNA repair signaling pathways in human and naked mole rat compared with mouse. The results of this present work indicate, for the first time, that DNA repair is upregulated in a major metabolic organ in long-lived humans and naked mole rats compared with short-lived mice. These results strongly suggest that DNA repair can be considered a genuine longevity assurance system. More Information

Tobe R, Carlson BA, Tsuji PA, Lee BJ, Gladyshev VN, Hatfield DL. (2015) Differences in Redox Regulatory Systems in Human Lung and Liver Tumors Suggest Different Avenues for Therapy. Cancers (Basel) 7, 2262-2276.

AbstractA common characteristic of many cancer cells is that they suffer from oxidative stress. They, therefore, require effective redox regulatory systems to combat the higher levels of reactive oxygen species that accompany accelerated growth compared to the normal cells of origin. An elevated dependence on these systems in cancers suggests that targeting these systems may provide an avenue for retarding the malignancy process. Herein, we examined the redox regulatory systems in human liver and lung cancers by comparing human lung adenocarcinoma and liver carcinoma to their respective surrounding normal tissues. Significant differences were found in the two major redox systems, the thioredoxin and glutathione systems. Thioredoxin reductase 1 levels were elevated in both malignancies, but thioredoxin was highly upregulated in lung tumor and only slightly upregulated in liver tumor, while peroxiredoxin 1 was highly elevated in lung tumor, but downregulated in liver tumor. There were also major differences within the glutathione system between the malignancies and their normal tissues. The data suggest a greater dependence of liver on either the thioredoxin or glutathione system to drive the malignancy, while lung cancer appeared to depend primarily on the thioredoxin system. More Information

Zhou X, Seim I, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Convergent evolution of marine mammals is associated with distinct substitutions in common genes. Sci Rep. 5, 16550.

AbstractPhenotypic convergence is thought to be driven by parallel substitutions coupled with natural selection at the sequence level. Multiple independent evolutionary transitions of mammals to an aquatic environment offer an opportunity to test this thesis. Here, whole genome alignment of coding sequences identified widespread parallel amino acid substitutions in marine mammals; however, the majority of these changes were not unique to these animals. Conversely, we report that candidate aquatic adaptation genes, identified by signatures of likelihood convergence and/or elevated ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitution rate, are characterized by very few parallel substitutions and exhibit distinct sequence changes in each group. Moreover, no significant positive correlation was found between likelihood convergence and positive selection in all three marine lineages. These results suggest that convergence in protein coding genes associated with aquatic lifestyle is mainly characterized by independent substitutions and relaxed negative selection. More Information

Ma S, Lee SG, Kim EB, Park TJ, Seluanov A, Gorbunova V, Buffenstein R, Seravalli J, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Organization of the Mammalian Ionome According to Organ Origin, Lineage Specialization, and Longevity. Cell Rep. 13, 1319-1326.

AbstractTrace elements are essential to all mammals, but their distribution and utilization across species and organs remains unclear. Here, we examined 18 elements in the brain, heart, kidney, and liver of 26 mammalian species and report the elemental composition of these organs, the patterns of utilization across the species, and their correlation with body mass and longevity. Across the organs, we observed distinct distribution patterns for abundant elements, transition metals, and toxic elements. Some elements showed lineage-specific patterns, including reduced selenium utilization in African mole rats, and positive correlation between the number of selenocysteine residues in selenoprotein P and the selenium levels in liver and kidney across mammals. Body mass was linked positively to zinc levels, whereas species lifespan correlated positively with cadmium and negatively with selenium. This study provides insights into the variation of mammalian ionome by organ physiology, lineage specialization, body mass, and longevity. More Information

Kaya A, Gerashchenko MV, Seim I, Labarre J, Toledano MB, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Adaptive aneuploidy protects against thiol peroxidase deficiency by increasing respiration via key mitochondrial proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112, 10685-10690.

AbstractAerobic respiration is a fundamental energy-generating process; however, there is cost associated with living in an oxygen-rich environment, because partially reduced oxygen species can damage cellular components. Organisms evolved enzymes that alleviate this damage and protect the intracellular milieu, most notably thiol peroxidases, which are abundant and conserved enzymes that mediate hydrogen peroxide signaling and act as the first line of defense against oxidants in nearly all living organisms. Deletion of all eight thiol peroxidase genes in yeast (∆8 strain) is not lethal, but results in slow growth and a high mutation rate. Here we characterized mechanisms that allow yeast cells to survive under conditions of thiol peroxidase deficiency. Two independent ∆8 strains increased mitochondrial content, altered mitochondrial distribution, and became dependent on respiration for growth but they were not hypersensitive to H2O2. In addition, both strains independently acquired a second copy of chromosome XI and increased expression of genes encoded by it. Survival of ∆8 cells was dependent on mitochondrial cytochrome-c peroxidase (CCP1) and UTH1, present on chromosome XI. Coexpression of these genes in ∆8 cells led to the elimination of the extra copy of chromosome XI and improved cell growth, whereas deletion of either gene was lethal. Thus, thiol peroxidase deficiency requires dosage compensation of CCP1 and UTH1 via chromosome XI aneuploidy, wherein these proteins support hydroperoxide removal with the reducing equivalents generated by the electron transport chain. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of adaptive aneuploidy counteracting oxidative stress. More Information

Ma S, Yim SH, Lee SG, Kim EB, Lee SR, Chang KT, Buffenstein R, Lewis KN, Park TJ, Miller RA, Clish CB, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Organization of the mammalian metabolome according to organ function, lineage specialization, and longevity. Cell Metabolism. 22, 332-343.

AbstractBiological diversity among mammals is remarkable. Mammalian body weights range seven orders of magnitude and lifespans differ more than 100-fold among species. While genetic, dietary, and pharmacological interventions can be used to modulate these traits in model organisms, it is unknown how they are determined by natural selection. By profiling metabolites in brain, heart, kidney, and liver tissues of 26 mammalian species representing ten taxonomical orders, we report metabolite patterns characteristic of organs, lineages, and species longevity. Our data suggest different rates of metabolite divergence across organs and reveal patterns representing organ-specific functions and lineage-specific physiologies. We identified metabolites that correlated with species lifespan, some of which were previously implicated in longevity control. We also compared the results with metabolite changes in five long-lived mouse models and observed some similar patterns. Overall, this study describes adjustments of the mammalian metabolome according to lifespan, phylogeny, and organ and lineage specialization. More Information

Turanov AA, Everley RA, Hybsier S, Renko K, Schomburg L, Gygi SP, Hatfield DL, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Regulation of Selenocysteine Content of Human Selenoprotein P by Dietary Selenium and Insertion of Cysteine in Place of Selenocysteine. PLoS One 10, e0140353.

AbstractSelenoproteins are a unique group of proteins that contain selenium in the form of selenocysteine (Sec) co-translationally inserted in response to a UGA codon with the help of cis- and trans-acting factors. Mammalian selenoproteins contain single Sec residues, with the exception of selenoprotein P (SelP) that has 7-15 Sec residues depending on species. Assessing an individual’s selenium status is important under various pathological conditions, which requires a reliable selenium biomarker. Due to a key role in organismal selenium homeostasis, high Sec content, regulation by dietary selenium, and availability of robust assays in human plasma, SelP has emerged as a major biomarker of selenium status. Here, we found that Cys is present in various Sec positions in human SelP. Treatment of cells expressing SelP with thiophosphate, an analog of the selenium donor for Sec synthesis, led to a nearly complete replacement of Sec with Cys, whereas supplementation of cells with selenium supported Sec insertion. SelP isolated directly from human plasma had up to 8% Cys inserted in place of Sec, depending on the Sec position. These findings suggest that a change in selenium status may be reflected in both SelP concentration and its Sec content, and that availability of the SelP-derived selenium for selenoprotein synthesis may be overestimated under conditions of low selenium status due to replacement of Sec with Cys. More Information

Kaya A, Ma S, Wasko B, Lee M, Kaeberiein M, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Defining molecular basis for longevity traits in natural yeast isolates. npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease 112, 10685-10690.

AbstractBackground: The budding yeast has served as a useful model organism in aging studies, leading to the identification of genetic determinants of longevity, many of which are conserved in higher eukaryotes. However, factors that promote longevity in a laboratory setting often have severe fitness disadvantages in the wild.
Aims and Methods: To obtain an unbiased view on longevity regulation, we analyzed how a replicative lifespan is shaped by transcriptional, translational, metabolic, and morphological factors across 22 wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolates.
Results: We observed significant differences in lifespan across these strains and found that their longevity is strongly associated with up-regulation of oxidative phosphorylation and respiration and down-regulation of amino- acid and nitrogen compound biosynthesis.
Conclusions: As calorie restriction and TOR signaling also extend the lifespan by adjusting many of the identified pathways, the data suggest that the natural plasticity of yeast lifespan is shaped by the processes that not only do not impose cost on fitness, but also are amenable to dietary intervention.
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Tarrago L, Péterfi Z, Lee BC, Michel T, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Monitoring methionine sulfoxide with stereospecific mechanism-based fluorescent sensors. Nat Chem Biol. 11, 332-338.

AbstractMethionine can be reversibly oxidized to methionine sulfoxide (MetO) under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, but its use as a redox marker suffers from the lack of tools to detect and quantify MetO within cells. In this work, we created a pair of complementary stereospecific genetically encoded mechanism-based ratiometric fluorescent sensors of MetO by inserting a circularly permuted yellow fluorescent protein between yeast methionine sulfoxide reductases and thioredoxins. The two sensors, respectively named MetSOx and MetROx for their ability to detect S and R forms of MetO, were used for targeted analysis of protein oxidation, regulation and repair as well as for monitoring MetO in bacterial and mammalian cells, analyzing compartment-specific changes in MetO and examining responses to physiological stimuli. More Information

Mariotti M, Santesmasses D, Capella-Gutierrez S, Mateo A, Arnan C, Johnson R, D’Aniello S, Yim SH, Gladyshev VN, Serras F, Corominas M, Gabaldon T, Guigo R. (2015) Evolution of selenophosphate synthetases: emergence and relocation of function through independent duplications and recurrent subfunctionalization. Genome Res. 25, 1256-1267.

AbstractSelenoproteins are proteins that incorporate selenocysteine (Sec), a non-standard amino acid that is encoded by UGA, normally a stop codon. The synthesis of Sec requires the enzyme Selenophosphate synthetase (SPS or SelD), conserved in all prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes encoding selenoproteins. Here we study the evolutionary history of SPS genes, providing a map of selenoprotein function spanning the whole tree of life. SPS is itself a selenoprotein in many species, though functionally equivalent homologues that replace the Sec site with cysteine (Cys) are common. Many metazoans, however, possess SPS genes with substitutions other than Sec or Cys (collectively referred to as SPS1). Using complementation assays in fly mutants, we show that these genes share a common function, which appears to be distinct from the synthesis of selenophosphate carried out by the Sec- and Cys- SPS genes (termed SPS2), and unrelated to Sec synthesis. Even though sharing the same function, we show here that SPS1 genes originated through a number of independent gene duplications from an ancestral metazoan selenoprotein SPS2 gene, that most likely already carried the SPS1 function. Thus, in SPS genes, parallel duplications and subsequent convergent subfunctionalization have resulted in the segregation to different loci of functions initially carried by a single gene. A key actor in the evolution of SPS genes is a stem-loop RNA structure enhancing the readthrough of the Sec-UGA codon, whose origin may be traced back to prokaryotes. The evolutionary history of SPS constitutes a remarkable example of emergence and evolution of gene function, which we have been able to trace with unusual detail thanks to the singular features of SPS genes, wherein the amino acid at a single site determines unequivocally protein function and is intertwined to the evolutionary fate of the entire selenoproteome. More Information

Kaya A, Lee BC, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Regulation of protein function by reversible methionine oxidation and the role of selenoprotein MsrB1. Antioxid Redox Signal. 23, 814-822.

AbstractSIGNIFICANCE: Protein structure and function can be regulated via post-translational modifications by numerous enzymatic and nonenzymatic mechanisms. Regulation involving oxidation of sulfur-containing residues emerged as a key mechanism of redox control. Unraveling the participants and principles of such regulation is necessary for understanding the biological significance of redox control of cellular processes. Recent Advances: Reversible oxidation of methionine residues by monooxygenases of the Mical family and subsequent reduction of methionine sulfoxides by a selenocysteine-containing methionine sulfoxide reductase B1 (MsrB1) was found to control the assembly and disassembly of actin in mammals, and the Mical/MsrB pair similarly regulates actin in fruit flies. This finding has opened up new avenues for understanding the use of stereospecific methionine oxidation in regulating cellular processes and the roles of MsrB1 and Micals in regulation of actin dynamics.
CRITICAL ISSUES: So far, Micals have been the only known partners of MsrB1, and actin is the only target. It is important to identify additional substrates of Micals and characterize other Mical-like enzymes.
FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Oxidation of methionine, reviewed here, is an emerging but not well-established mechanism. Studies suggest that methionine oxidation is a form of oxidative damage of proteins, a modification that alters protein structure or function, a tool in redox signaling, and a mechanism that controls protein function. Understanding the functional impact of reversible oxidation of methionine will require identification of targets, substrates, and regulators of Micals and Msrs. Linking the biological processes, in which these proteins participate, might also lead to insights into disease conditions, which involve regulation of actin by Micals and Msrs. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.
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Gould NS, Evans P, Martínez-Acedo P, Marino SM, Gladyshev VN, Carroll KS, Ischiropoulos H.(2015) Site-Specific proteomic mapping identifies selectively modified regulatory cysteine residues in functionally distinct protein networks. Chem Biol. 22, 965-975.

AbstractS-Acylation, S-glutathionylation, S-nitrosylation, and S-sulfenylation are prominent, chemically distinct modifications that regulate protein function, redox sensing, and trafficking. Although the biological significance of these modifications is increasingly appreciated, their integration in the proteome remains unknown. Novel mass spectrometry-based technologies identified 2,596 predominately unique sites in 1,319 mouse liver proteins under physiological conditions. Structural analysis localized the modifications in unique, evolutionary conserved protein segments, outside commonly annotated functional regions. Contrary to expectations, propensity for modification did not correlate with biophysical properties that regulate cysteine reactivity. However, the in vivo chemical reactivity is fine-tuned for specificity, demonstrated by the nominal complementation between the four modifications and quantitative proteomics which showed that a reduction in S-nitrosylation is not correlated with increased S-glutathionylation. A comprehensive survey uncovered clustering of modifications within biologically related protein networks. The data provide the first evidence for the occurrence of distinct, endogenous protein networks that undergo redox signaling through specific cysteine modifications. More Information

Kaya A, Lobanov AV, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Evidence that mutation accumulation does not cause aging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aging Cell 14, 366-371.

AbstractThe concept that mutations cause aging phenotypes could not be directly tested previously due to inability to identify age-related mutations in somatic cells and determine their impact on organismal aging. Here, we subjected Saccharomyces cerevisiae to multiple rounds of replicative aging and assessed de novo mutations in daughters of mothers of different age. Mutations did increase with age, but their low numbers, < 1 per lifespan, excluded their causal role in aging. Structural genome changes also had no role. A mutant lacking thiol peroxidases had the mutation rate well above that of wild-type cells, but this did not correspond to the aging pattern, as old wild-type cells with few or no mutations were dying, whereas young mutant cells with many more mutations continued dividing. In addition, wild-type cells lost mitochondrial DNA during aging, whereas shorter-lived mutant cells preserved it, excluding a causal role of mitochondrial mutations in aging. Thus, DNA mutations do not cause aging in yeast. These findings may apply to other damage types, suggesting a causal role of cumulative damage, as opposed to individual damage types, in organismal aging. More Information

Fushan AA, Turanov AA, Lee SG, Kim EB, Lobanov AV, Yim SH, Buffenstein R, Lee SR, Chang KT, Rhee H, Kim JS, Yang KS, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Gene expression defines natural changes in mammalian lifespan. Aging Cell 14, 352-365.

AbstractMammals differ more than 100-fold in maximum lifespan, which can be altered in either direction during evolution, but the molecular basis for natural changes in longevity is not understood. Divergent evolution of mammals also led to extensive changes in gene expression within and between lineages. To understand the relationship between lifespan and variation in gene expression, we carried out RNA-seq-based gene expression analyses of liver, kidney, and brain of 33 diverse species of mammals. Our analysis uncovered parallel evolution of gene expression and lifespan, as well as the associated life-history traits, and identified the processes and pathways involved. These findings provide direct insights into how nature reversibly adjusts lifespan and other traits during adaptive radiation of lineages. More Information

Kim MJ, Lee BC, Hwang KY, Gladyshev VN, Kim HY. (2015) Selenium utilization in thioredoxin and catalytic advantage provided by selenocysteine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 461, 648-652.

AbstractThioredoxin (Trx) is a major thiol-disulfide reductase that plays a role in many biological processes, including DNA replication and redox signaling. Although selenocysteine (Sec)-containing Trxs have been identified in certain bacteria, their enzymatic properties have not been characterized. In this study, we expressed a selenoprotein Trx from Treponema denticola, an oral spirochete, in Escherichia coli and characterized this selenoenzyme and its natural cysteine (Cys) homologue using E. coli Trx1 as a positive control. 75Se metabolic labeling and mutation analyses showed that the SECIS (Sec insertion sequence) of T. denticola selenoprotein Trx is functional in the E. coli Sec insertion system with specific selenium incorporation into the Sec residue. The selenoprotein Trx exhibited approximately 10-fold higher catalytic activity than the Sec-to-Cys version and natural Cys homologue and E. coli Trx1, suggesting that Sec confers higher catalytic activity on this thiol-disulfide reductase. Kinetic analysis also showed that the selenoprotein Trx had a 10-fold higher Km than Cys-containing homologues, suggesting that this selenoenzyme is adapted to work efficiently with high concentrations of substrate. Collectively, the results of this study support the hypothesis that selenium utilization in oxidoreductase systems is primarily due to the catalytic advantage provided by the rare amino acid, Sec. More Information

Tsuji PA, Carlson BA, Yoo MH, Naranjo-Suarez S, Xu XM, He Y, Asaki E, Seifried HE, Reinhold WC, Davis CD, Gladyshev VN, Hatfield DL. (2015) The 15kDa Selenoprotein and Thioredoxin Reductase 1 Promote Colon Cancer by Different Pathways. PLoS One 10, e0124487.

AbstractSelenoproteins mediate much of the cancer-preventive properties of the essential nutrient selenium, but some of these proteins have been shown to also have cancer-promoting effects. We examined the contributions of the 15kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) and thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) to cancer development. Targeted down-regulation of either gene inhibited anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent growth and formation of experimental metastases of mouse colon carcinoma CT26 cells. Surprisingly, combined deficiency of Sep15 and TR1 reversed the anti-cancer effects observed with down-regulation of each single gene. We found that inflammation-related genes regulated by Stat-1, especially interferon-γ-regulated guanylate-binding proteins, were highly elevated in Sep15-deficient, but not in TR1-deficient cells. Interestingly, components of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were up-regulated in cells lacking both TR1 and Sep15. These results suggest that Sep15 and TR1 participate in interfering regulatory pathways in colon cancer cells. Considering the variable expression levels of Sep15 and TR1 found within the human population, our results provide insights into new roles of selenoproteins in cancer. More Information

Bang J, Huh JH, Na JW, Lu Q, Carlson BA, Tobe R, Tsuji PA, Gladyshev VN, Hatfield DL, Lee BJ. (2015) Cell Proliferation and Motility are Inhibited by G1 Phase Arrest in 15-kDa Selenoprotein-Deficient Chang Liver Cells. Mol Cells 38, 457-465.

AbstractThe 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) is a selenoprotein residing in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and implicated in quality control of protein folding. Herein, we established an inducible RNAi cell line that targets Sep15 mRNA in Chang liver cells. RNAi-induced Sep15 deficiency led to inhibition of cell proliferation, whereas cell growth was resumed after removal of the knockdown inducer. Sep15-deficient cells were arrested at the G1 phase by upregulating p21 and p27, and these cells were also characterized by ER stress. In addition, Sep15 deficiency led to the relocation of focal adhesions to the periphery of the cell basement and to the decrease of the migratory and invasive ability. All these changes were reversible depending on Sep15 status. Rescuing the knockdown state by expressing a silent mutant Sep15 mRNA that is resistant to siRNA also reversed the phenotypic changes. Our results suggest that SEP15 plays important roles in the regulation of the G1 phase during the cell cycle as well as in cell motility in Chang liver cells, and that this selenoprotein offers a novel functional link between the cell cycle and cell motility. More Information

MacRae SL, Zhang Q, Lemetre C, Seim I, Calder RB, Hoeijmakers J, Suh Y, Gladyshev VN, Seluanov A, Gorbunova V, Vijg J, Zhang ZD. (2015) Comparative analysis of genome maintenance genes in naked mole rat, mouse, and human. Aging Cell 14, 288-291.

AbstractGenome maintenance (GM) is an essential defense system against aging and cancer, as both are characterized by increased genome instability. Here, we compared the copy number variation and mutation rate of 518 GM-associated genes in the naked mole rat (NMR), mouse, and human genomes. GM genes appeared to be strongly conserved, with copy number variation in only four genes. Interestingly, we found NMR to have a higher copy number of CEBPG, a regulator of DNA repair, and TINF2, a protector of telomere integrity. NMR, as well as human, was also found to have a lower rate of germline nucleotide substitution than the mouse. Together, the data suggest that the long-lived NMR, as well as human, has more robust GM than mouse and identifies new targets for the analysis of the exceptional longevity of the NMR. More Information

Nakao LS, Everley RA, Marino SM, Lo SM, de Souza LE, Gygi SP, Gladyshev VN. (2015) Mechanism-based proteomic screening identifies targets of thioredoxin-like proteins. J Biol Chem. 290, 5685-5695.

AbstractThioredoxin (Trx)-fold proteins are protagonists of numerous cellular pathways that are subject to thiol-based redox control. The best-characterized regulator of thiols in proteins is Trx1 itself, which together with thioredoxin reductase 1 (TR1) and peroxiredoxins (Prxs) comprises a key redox regulatory system in mammalian cells. However, there are numerous other Trx-like proteins, whose functions and redox interactors are unknown. It is also unclear if the principles of Trx1-based redox control apply to these proteins. Here, we employed a proteomic strategy to four Trx-like proteins containing CxxC motifs, namely Trx1, Rdx12, Trx-like protein 1 (Txnl1) and nucleoredoxin 1 (Nxn1), whose cellular targets were trapped in vivo using mutant Trx-like proteins, under conditions of low endogenous expression of these proteins. Prxs were detected as key redox targets of Trx1, but this approach also supported the detection of TR1, which is the Trx1 reductant, as well as mitochondrial intermembrane proteins AIFM1 and Mia40. In addition, glutathione peroxidase 4 was found to be a Rdx12 redox target. In contrast, no redox targets of Txnl1 and Nxn1 could be detected, suggesting that their CxxC motifs do not engage in mixed disulfides with cellular proteins. For some Trx-like proteins, the method allowed distinguishing redox and non-redox interactions. Parallel, comparative analyses of multiple thiol oxidoreductases revealed differences in the functions of their CxxC motifs, providing important insights into thiol-based redox control of cellular processes. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. More Information

Tian X, Azpurua J, Ke Z, Augereau A, Zhang ZD, Vijg J, Gladyshev VN, Gorbunova V, Seluanov A. (2015) INK4 locus of the tumor-resistant rodent, the naked mole rat, expresses a functional p15/p16 hybrid isoform. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112, 1053-1058.

AbstractThe naked mole rat (Heterocephalus glaber) is a long-lived and tumor-resistant rodent. Tumor resistance in the naked mole rat is mediated by the extracellular matrix component hyaluronan of very high molecular weight (HMW-HA). HMW-HA triggers hypersensitivity of naked mole rat cells to contact inhibition, which is associated with induction of the INK4 (inhibitors of cyclin dependent kinase 4) locus leading to cell-cycle arrest. The INK4a/b locus is among the most frequently mutated in human cancer. This locus encodes three distinct tumor suppressors: p15INK4b, p16INK4a, and ARF (alternate reading frame). Although p15INK4b has its own ORF, p16INK4a and ARF share common second and third exons with alternative reading frames. Here, we show that, in the naked mole rat, the INK4a/b locus encodes an additional product that consists of p15INK4b exon 1 joined to p16INK4a exons 2 and 3. We have named this isoform pALTINK4a/b (for alternative splicing). We show that pALTINK4a/b is present in both cultured cells and naked mole rat tissues but is absent in human and mouse cells. Additionally, we demonstrate that pALTINK4a/b expression is induced during early contact inhibition and upon a variety of stresses such as UV, gamma irradiation-induced senescence, loss of substrate attachment, and expression of oncogenes. When overexpressed in naked mole rat or human cells, pALTINK4a/b has stronger ability to induce cell-cycle arrest than either p15INK4b or p16INK4a. We hypothesize that the presence of the fourth product, pALTINK4a/b of the INK4a/b locus in the naked mole rat, contributes to the increased resistance to tumorigenesis of this species. More Information

Hine C, Harputlugil E, Zhang Y, Ruckenstuhl C, Lee BC, Brace L, Longchamp A, Treviño-Villarreal JH, Mejia P, Ozaki CK, Wang R, Gladyshev VN, Madeo F, Mair WB, Mitchell JR. (2015) Endogenous Hydrogen Sulfide Production Is Essential for Dietary Restriction Benefits. Cell 160, 132-144.

AbstractDietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition encompasses numerous regimens with overlapping benefits including longevity and stress resistance, but unifying nutritional and molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In a mouse model of DR-mediated stress resistance, we found that sulfur amino acid (SAA) restriction increased expression of the transsulfuration pathway (TSP) enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CGL), resulting in increased hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production and protection from hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury. SAA supplementation, mTORC1 activation, or chemical/genetic CGL inhibition reduced H2S production and blocked DR-mediated stress resistance. In vitro, the mitochondrial protein SQR was required for H2S-mediated protection during nutrient/oxygen deprivation. Finally, TSP-dependent H2S production was observed in yeast, worm, fruit fly, and rodent models of DR-mediated longevity. Together, these data are consistent with evolutionary conservation of TSP-mediated H2S as a mediator of DR benefits with broad implications for clinical translation. More Information

Bang J, Jang M, Huh JH, Na J, Shim M, Carlson BA, Tobe R, Tsuji PA, Gladyshev VN, Hatfield DL, Lee BJ. (2015) Deficiency of the 15-kDa selenoprotein led to cytoskeleton remodeling and non-apoptotic membrane blebbing through a RhoA/ROCK pathway. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 456, 884-890.

AbstractThe 15-kDa selenoprotein (Sep15) has been implicated in etiology of some types of cancer. Herein, inducible RNAi cell lines were established and cell morphology and motility were analyzed. The majority of Sep15-deficient cells (>95%) formed membrane blebs in a dynamic manner. Blebbing cells transformed cell morphology from a normal flat spindle shape to a spherical morphology. In blebbing cells, actin fibers moved to the cell periphery, covering and obscuring visualization of α-tubulin. Bleb formation was suppressed by the inhibitors of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), RhoA or myosin light chain (MLC), restoring blebbing cells to wild-type morphology. RhoA activation and phosphorylation of myosin phosphatase target subunit 1 was induced by Sep15 knockdown. Sep15-deficient cells were non-apoptotic, and displayed a distinct relative localization of F-actin and α-tubulin from typical apoptotic blebbing cells. Our data suggest that Sep15 in Chang liver cells regulates the pathway that antagonizes RhoA/ROCK/MLC-dependent non-apoptotic bleb formation. More Information

Cornelis MC, Fornage M, Foy M, Xun P, Gladyshev VN, Morris S, Chasman DI, Hu FB, Rimm EB, Kraft P, Jordan JM, Mozaffarian D, He K. (2015) Genome-wide association study of selenium concentrations. Hum Mol Genet. 24, 1469-1477.

AbstractSelenium (Se) is an essential trace element in human nutrition, but its role in certain health conditions, particularly among Se sufficient populations, is controversial. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of blood Se concentrations previously identified a locus at 5q14 near BHMT. We performed a GW meta-analysis of toenail Se concentrations, which reflect a longer duration of exposure than blood Se concentrations, including 4162 European descendants from four US cohorts. Toenail Se was measured using neutron activation analysis. We identified a GW-significant locus at 5q14 (P < 1 × 10(-16)), the same locus identified in the published GWAS of blood Se based on independent cohorts. The lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) explained ∼1% of the variance in toenail Se concentrations. Using GW-summary statistics from both toenail and blood Se, we observed statistical evidence of polygenic overlap (P < 0.001) and meta-analysis of results from studies of either trait (n = 9639) yielded a second GW-significant locus at 21q22.3, harboring CBS (P < 4 × 10(-8)). Proteins encoded by genes at 5q14 and 21q22.3 function in homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism, and index SNPs for each have previously been associated with betaine and Hcy levels in GWAS. Our findings show evidence of a genetic link between Se and Hcy pathways, both involved in cardiometabolic disease. More Information