2020 Articles

Konstantinidis K, Bezzerides VJ, Lai L, Isbell HM, Wei AC, Wu Y, Viswanathan MC, Blum ID, Granger JM, Heims-Waldron D, Zhang D, Luczak ED, Murphy KR, Lu F, Gratz DH, Manta B, Wang Q, Wang Q, Kolodkin AL, Gladyshev VN, Hund TJ, Pu WT, Wu MN, Cammarato A, Bianchet MA, Shea MA, Levine RL, Anderson ME. (2020) MICAL1 constrains cardiac stress responses and protects against disease by oxidizing CaMKII. J Clin Invest. 130(9), 4663-4687.

AbstractOxidant stress can contribute to health and disease. Here we show that invertebrates and vertebrates share a common stereospecific redox pathway that protects against pathological responses to stress, at the cost of reduced physiological performance, by constraining Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity. MICAL1, a methionine monooxygenase thought to exclusively target actin, and MSRB, a methionine reductase, control the stereospecific redox status of M308, a highly conserved residue in the calmodulin-binding (CaM-binding) domain of CaMKII. Oxidized or mutant M308 (M308V) decreased CaM binding and CaMKII activity, while absence of MICAL1 in mice caused cardiac arrhythmias and premature death due to CaMKII hyperactivation. Mimicking the effects of M308 oxidation decreased fight-or-flight responses in mice, strikingly impaired heart function in Drosophila melanogaster, and caused disease protection in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, a CaMKII-sensitive genetic arrhythmia syndrome. Our studies identify a stereospecific redox pathway that regulates cardiac physiological and pathological responses to stress across species. More Information

Zhou X, Dou Q, Fan G, Zhang Q, Sanderford M, Kaya A, Johnson J, Karlsson EK, Tian X, Mikhalchenko A, Kumar S, Seluanov A, Zhang ZD, Gorbunova V, Liu X, Gladyshev VN. (2020) Beaver and Naked Mole Rat Genomes Reveal Common Paths to Longevity. Cell Rep. 32(4), 107949.

AbstractLong-lived rodents have become an attractive model for the studies on aging. To understand evolutionary paths to long life, we prepare chromosome-level genome assemblies of the two longest-lived rodents, Canadian beaver (Castor canadensis) and naked mole rat (NMR, Heterocephalus glaber), which were scaffolded with in vitro proximity ligation and chromosome conformation capture data and complemented with long-read sequencing. Our comparative genomic analyses reveal that amino acid substitutions at “disease-causing” sites are widespread in the rodent genomes and that identical substitutions in long-lived rodents are associated with common adaptive phenotypes, e.g., enhanced resistance to DNA damage and cellular stress. By employing a newly developed substitution model and likelihood ratio test, we find that energy and fatty acid metabolism pathways are enriched for signals of positive selection in both long-lived rodents. Thus, the high-quality genome resource of long-lived rodents can assist in the discovery of genetic factors that control longevity and adaptive evolution. More Information

Cohen AA, Kennedy BK, Anglas U, Bronikowski AM, Deelen J, Dufour F, Ferbeyre G, Ferrucci L, Franceschi C, Frasca D, Friguet B, Gaudreau P, Gladyshev VN, Gonos ES, Gorbunova V, Gut P, Ivanchenko M, Legault V, Lemaître JF, Liontis T, Liu GH, Liu M, Maier AB, Nóbrega OT, Olde Rikkert MGM, Pawelec G, Rheault S, Senior AM, Simm A, Soo S, Traa A, Ukraintseva S, Vanhaelen Q, Van Raamsdonk JM, Witkowski JM, Yashin AI, Ziman R, Fülöp T. (2020) Lack of consensus on an aging biology paradigm? A global survey reveals an agreement to disagree, and the need for an interdisciplinary framework. Mech Ageing Dev. 191, 111316.

AbstractAt a recent symposium on aging biology, a debate was held as to whether or not we know what biological aging is. Most of the participants were struck not only by the lack of consensus on this core question, but also on many basic tenets of the field. Accordingly, we undertook a systematic survey of our 71 participants on key questions that were raised during the debate and symposium, eliciting 37 responses. The results confirmed the impression from the symposium: there is marked disagreement on the most fundamental questions in the field, and little consensus on anything other than the heterogeneous nature of aging processes. Areas of major disagreement included what participants viewed as the essence of aging, when it begins, whether aging is programmed or not, whether we currently have a good understanding of aging mechanisms, whether aging is or will be quantifiable, whether aging will be treatable, and whether many non-aging species exist. These disagreements lay bare the urgent need for a more unified and cross-disciplinary paradigm in the biology of aging that will clarify both areas of agreement and disagreement, allowing research to proceed more efficiently. We suggest directions to encourage the emergence of such a paradigm. More Information

Anisimova AS, Meerson MB, Gerashchenko MV, Kulakovskiy IV, Dmitriev SE, Gladyshev VN. (2020) Multifaceted deregulation of gene expression and protein synthesis with age. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 117(27), 15581-15590.

AbstractProtein synthesis represents a major metabolic activity of the cell. However, how it is affected by aging and how this in turn impacts cell function remains largely unexplored. To address this question, herein we characterized age-related changes in both the transcriptome and translatome of mouse tissues over the entire life span. We showed that the transcriptome changes govern those in the translatome and are associated with altered expression of genes involved in inflammation, extracellular matrix, and lipid metabolism. We also identified genes that may serve as candidate biomarkers of aging. At the translational level, we uncovered sustained down-regulation of a set of 5′-terminal oligopyrimidine (5′-TOP) transcripts encoding protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis machinery and regulated by the mTOR pathway. For many of them, ribosome occupancy dropped twofold or even more. Moreover, with age, ribosome coverage gradually decreased in the vicinity of start codons and increased near stop codons, revealing complex age-related changes in the translation process. Taken together, our results reveal systematic and multidimensional deregulation of protein synthesis, showing how this major cellular process declines with age. More Information

Lashkevich KA, Shlyk VI, Kushchenko AS, Gladyshev VN, Alkalaeva EZ, Dmitriev SE. (2020) CTELS: A Cell-Free System for the Analysis of Translation Termination Rate. Biomolecules. 10(6), 911.

AbstractTranslation termination is the final step in protein biosynthesis when the synthesized polypeptide is released from the ribosome. Understanding this complex process is important for treatment of many human disorders caused by nonsense mutations in important genes. Here, we present a new method for the analysis of translation termination rate in cell-free systems, CTELS (for C-terminally extended luciferase-based system). This approach was based on a continuously measured luciferase activity during in vitro translation reaction of two reporter mRNA, one of which encodes a C-terminally extended luciferase. This extension occupies a ribosomal polypeptide tunnel and lets the completely synthesized enzyme be active before translation termination occurs, i.e., when it is still on the ribosome. In contrast, luciferase molecule without the extension emits light only after its release. Comparing the translation dynamics of these two reporters allows visualization of a delay corresponding to the translation termination event. We demonstrated applicability of this approach for investigating the effects of cis- and trans-acting components, including small molecule inhibitors and read-through inducing sequences, on the translation termination rate. With CTELS, we systematically assessed negative effects of decreased 3′ UTR length, specifically on termination. We also showed that blasticidin S implements its inhibitory effect on eukaryotic translation system, mostly by affecting elongation, and that an excess of eRF1 termination factor (both the wild-type and a non-catalytic AGQ mutant) can interfere with elongation. Analysis of read-through mechanics with CTELS revealed a transient stalling event at a “leaky” stop codon context, which likely defines the basis of nonsense suppression. More Information

Sanchez-Lopez C, Labadie N, Lombardo V, Biglione F, Manta B, Jacob R, Gladyshev VN, Abdelilah-Seyfried S, Selenko P, Binolfi A. (2020) An NMR-based biosensor to measure stereo-specific methionine sulfoxide reductase (MSR) activities in vitro and in vivo. Chemistry.

AbstractOxidation of protein methionines to methionine-sulfoxides (MetOx) is associated with several age-related diseases. In healthy cells, MetOx is reduced to methionine by two families of conserved methionine sulfoxide reductase enzymes, MSRA and MSRB that specifically target the S – or R -diastereoisomers of methionine-sulfoxides, respectively. To directly interrogate MSRA and MSRB functions in cellular settings, we developed an NMR-based biosensor that we call CarMetOx to simultaneously measure both enzyme activities in single reaction setups. We demonstrate the suitability of our strategy to delineate MSR functions in complex biological environments, including cell lysates and live zebrafish embryos. Thereby, we establish differences in substrate specificities between prokaryotic and eukaryotic MSRs and introduce CarMetOx as a highly sensitive tool for studying therapeutic targets of oxidative stress-related human diseases and redox regulated signaling pathways. More Information

Galkin F, Mamoshina P, Aliper A, Putin E, Moskalev V, Gladyshev VN, Zhavoronkov A. (2020) Human Gut Microbiome Aging Clock Based on Taxonomic Profiling and Deep Learning. iScience. 23(6), 101199.

AbstractThe human gut microbiome is a complex ecosystem that both affects and is affected by its host status. Previous metagenomic analyses of gut microflora revealed associations between specific microbes and host age. Nonetheless there was no reliable way to tell a host’s age based on the gut community composition. Here we developed a method of predicting hosts’ age based on microflora taxonomic profiles using a cross-study dataset and deep learning. Our best model has an architecture of a deep neural network that achieves the mean absolute error of 5.91 years when tested on external data. We further advance a procedure for inferring the role of particular microbes during human aging and defining them as potential aging biomarkers. The described intestinal clock represents a unique quantitative model of gut microflora aging and provides a starting point for building host aging and gut community succession into a single narrative. More Information

Liberman N, O’Brown ZK, Earl AS, Boulias K, Gerashchenko MV, Wang SY, Fritsche C, Fady PE, Dong A, Gladyshev VN, Greer EL. (2020) N6-adenosine methylation of ribosomal RNA affects lipid oxidation and stress resistance. Sci Adv. 6(17), eaaz4370.

AbstractDuring stress, global translation is reduced, but specific transcripts are actively translated. How stress-responsive mRNAs are selectively translated is unknown. We show that METL-5 methylates adenosine 1717 on 18S ribosomal RNA in C. elegans, enhancing selective ribosomal binding and translation of specific mRNAs. One of these mRNAs, CYP-29A3, oxidizes the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid to eicosanoids, key stress signaling molecules. While metl-5-deficient animals grow normally under homeostatic conditions, they are resistant to a variety of stresses. metl-5 mutant worms also show reduced bioactive lipid eicosanoids and dietary supplementation of eicosanoid products of CYP-29A3 restores stress sensitivity of metl-5 mutant worms. Thus, methylation of a specific residue of 18S rRNA by METL-5 selectively enhances translation of cyp-29A3 to increase production of eicosanoids, and blocking this pathway increases stress resistance. This study suggests that ribosome methylation can facilitate selective translation, providing another layer of regulation of the stress response. More Information

Bozaykut P, Ekren R, Sezerman OU, Gladyshev VN, Ozer NK. (2020) High-throughput profiling reveals perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related genes in atherosclerosis induced by high-cholesterol diet and the protective role of vitamin E. Biofactors.

AbstractFormation of atherosclerotic plaques, called atherogenesis, is a complex process affected by genetic and environmental factors. It was proposed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an important factor in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and that vitamin E affects atherosclerotic plaque formation via its antioxidant properties. Here, we investigated ER stress-related molecular mechanisms in high-cholesterol diet (HCD, 2%)-induced atherosclerosis model and the role of vitamin E supplementation in it, beyond its antioxidant properties. The consequences of HCD and vitamin E supplementation were examined by determining protein levels of ER stress markers in aortic tissues. As vitamin E supplementation acts on several unfolded protein response (UPR) factors, it decreased ER stress induced by HCD. To elucidate the associated pathways, gene expression profiling was performed, revealing differentially expressed genes enriched in ER stress-related pathways such as the proteasome and the apoptosis pathways. We further assessed the proteasomal activity impaired by HCD in the aorta and showed that vitamin E reversed it to that of control animals. Overall, the study characterized the effects of HCD and vitamin E on ER stress-related gene expression, revealing the role of proteolytic systems during atherogenesis. More Information

Jedrychowski MP, Lu GZ, Szpyt J, Mariotti M, Garrity R, Paulo JA, Schweppe DK, Laznik-Bogoslavski D, Kazak L, Murphy MP, Gladyshev VN, Gygi SP, Chouchani ET, Spiegelman BM. (2020) Facultative protein selenation regulates redox sensitivity, adipose tissue thermogenesis, and obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 117(20), 10789-10796.

AbstractOxidation of cysteine thiols by physiological reactive oxygen species (ROS) initiates thermogenesis in brown and beige adipose tissues. Cellular selenocysteines, where sulfur is replaced with selenium, exhibit enhanced reactivity with ROS. Despite their critical roles in physiology, methods for broad and direct detection of proteogenic selenocysteines are limited. Here we developed a mass spectrometric method to interrogate incorporation of selenium into proteins. Unexpectedly, this approach revealed facultative incorporation of selenium as selenocysteine or selenomethionine into proteins that lack canonical encoding for selenocysteine. Selenium was selectively incorporated into regulatory sites on key metabolic proteins, including as selenocysteine-replacing cysteine at position 253 in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). This facultative utilization of selenium was initiated by increasing cellular levels of organic, but not inorganic, forms of selenium. Remarkably, dietary selenium supplementation elevated facultative incorporation into UCP1, elevated energy expenditure through thermogenic adipose tissue, and protected against obesity. Together, these findings reveal the existence of facultative protein selenation, which correlates with impacts on thermogenic adipocyte function and presumably other biological processes as well. More Information

Zhang B, Podolskiy DI, Mariotti M, Seravalli J, Gladyshev VN. (2020) Systematic age-, organ-, and diet-associated ionome remodeling and the development of ionomic aging clocks. Aging Cell. 19(5), e13119.

AbstractAging involves coordinated yet distinct changes in organs and systems throughout life, including changes in essential trace elements. However, how aging affects tissue element composition (ionome) and how these changes lead to dysfunction and disease remain unclear. Here, we quantified changes in the ionome across eight organs and 16 age groups of mice. This global profiling revealed novel interactions between elements at the level of tissue, age, and diet, and allowed us to achieve a broader, organismal view of the aging process. We found that while the entire ionome steadily transitions along the young-to-old trajectory, individual organs are characterized by distinct element changes. The ionome of mice on calorie restriction (CR) moved along a similar but shifted trajectory, pointing that at the organismal level this dietary regimen changes metabolism in order to slow down aging. However, in some tissues CR mimicked a younger state of control mice. Even though some elements changed with age differently in different tissues, in general aging was characterized by the reduced levels of elements as well as their increased variance. The dataset we prepared also allowed to develop organ-specific, ionome-based markers of aging that could help monitor the rate of aging. In some tissues, these markers reported the lifespan-extending effect of CR. These aging biomarkers have the potential to become an accessible tool to test the age-modulating effects of interventions. More Information

Zhang B, Gladyshev VN. (2020) How can aging be reversed? Exploring rejuvenation from a damage‐based perspective. Advanced Genetics. 1(1), e10025.

AbstractAdvanced age is associated with accumulation of damage and other deleterious changes and a consequential systemic decline of function. This decline affects all organs and systems in an organism, leading to their inadaptability to the environment, and therefore is thought to be inevitable for humans and most animal species. However, in vitro and in vivo application of reprogramming strategies, which convert somatic cells to induced pluripotent stem cells, has demonstrated that the aged cells can be rejuvenated. Moreover, the data and theoretical considerations suggest that reversing the biological age of somatic cells (from old to young) and de‐differentiating somatic cells into stem cells represent two distinct processes that take place during rejuvenation, and thus they may be differently targeted. We advance a stemness‐function model to explain these data and discuss a possibility of rejuvenation from the perspective of damage accumulation. In turn, this suggests approaches to achieve rejuvenation of cells in vitro and in vivo. More Information

Galkin F, Mamoshina P, Aliper A, de Magalhães JP, Gladyshev VN, Zhavoronkov A. (2020) Biohorology and biomarkers of aging: Current state-of-the-art, challenges and opportunities. Ageing Res Rev. 60, 101050.

AbstractThe aging process results in multiple traceable footprints, which can be quantified and used to estimate an organism’s age. Examples of such aging biomarkers include epigenetic changes, telomere attrition, and alterations in gene expression and metabolite concentrations. More than a dozen aging clocks use molecular features to predict an organism’s age, each of them utilizing different data types and training procedures. Here, we offer a detailed comparison of existing mouse and human aging clocks, discuss their technological limitations and the underlying machine learning algorithms. We also discuss promising future directions of research in biohorology – the science of measuring the passage of time in living systems. Overall, we expect deep learning, deep neural networks and generative approaches to be the next power tools in this timely and actively developing field. More Information

Shindyapina AV, Zenin AA, Tarkhov AE, Santesmasses D, Fedichev PO, Gladyshev VN. (2020) Germline burden of rare damaging variants negatively affects human healthspan and lifespan. eLife 9, 53449.

AbstractHeritability of human lifespan is 23-33% as evident from twin studies. Genome-wide association studies explored this question by linking particular alleles to lifespan traits. However, genetic variants identified so far can explain only a small fraction of lifespan heritability in humans. Here, we report that the burden of rarest protein-truncating variants (PTVs) in two large cohorts is negatively associated with human healthspan and lifespan, accounting for 0.4 and 1.3 years of their variability, respectively. In addition, longer-living individuals possess both fewer rarest PTVs and less damaging PTVs. We further estimated that somatic accumulation of PTVs accounts for only a small fraction of mortality and morbidity acceleration and hence is unlikely to be causal in aging. We conclude that rare damaging mutations, both inherited and accumulated throughout life, contribute to the aging process, and that burden of ultra-rare variants in combination with common alleles better explain apparent heritability of human lifespan. More Information

Fernando R, Wardelmann K, Deubel S, Kehm R, Jung T, Mariotti M, Vasilaki A, Gladyshev VN, Kleinridders A, Grune T, Castro JP. (2020) Low steady-state oxidative stress inhibits adipogenesis by altering mitochondrial dynamics and decreasing cellular respiration. Redox Biol. 32, 101507.

AbstractAdipogenesis is a fundamental process of white adipose tissue function, supporting lipid storage and release, while avoiding its spillover and ectopic accumulation in tissues and organs. During aging adipogenesis is impaired and among other factors, oxidative stress contributes to this process. Adipogenesis requires functional and dynamic mitochondria; however, this organelle itself becomes dysfunctional during aging and accounts for most of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here, we evaluated whether oxidative stress impairs adipogenesis through functional impairment of mitodynamics by utilizing hyperoxia as a continuous source of oxidative stress while maintaining cellular viability. This negatively impacted mitochondrial function, including respiration and dynamics and ultimately blocked adipogenesis. Interestingly, this state was reversible by using the antidiabetic drug, Rosiglitazone, which reduced oxidative stress, restored mitochondrial dynamics and respiration and augmented adipogenesis. Moreover, in vitro results were in agreement with in vivo models of oxidative stress and aging, in which mice depleted of the superoxide dismutase enzyme 1 (SOD1) and old wild-type C57BL/6JRj mice demonstrated the same trend of adipogenic potential. Importantly, in humans the results follow the same pattern, showing a downregulation of adipogenic markers during aging. Since the levels of oxidative stress and peripheral insulin resistance increase with age, while adipogenesis decreases during aging, our model helps to understand a possible way to overcome physiologically low, steady stress conditions and restore adipogenesis, avoiding accumulation of deleterious hypertrophic adipocytes in favor of beneficial hyperplasia. More Information

Santesmasses D, Mariotti M, Gladyshev VN. (2020) Bioinformatics of Selenoproteins. Antioxid Redox Signal. 33(7), 525-536.

AbstractSignificance: Bioinformatics has brought important insights into the field of selenium research. The progress made in the development of computational tools in the last two decades, coordinated with growing genome resources, provided new opportunities to study selenoproteins. The present review discusses existing tools for selenoprotein gene finding and other bioinformatic approaches to study the biology of selenium. Recent Advances: The availability of complete selenoproteomes allowed assessing a global distribution of the use of selenocysteine (Sec) across the tree of life, as well as studying the evolution of selenoproteins and their biosynthetic pathway. Beyond gene identification and characterization, human genetic variants in selenoprotein genes were used to examine adaptations to selenium levels in diverse human populations and to estimate selective constraints against gene loss. Critical Issues: The synthesis of selenoproteins is essential for development in mice. In humans, several mutations in selenoprotein genes have been linked to rare congenital disorders. And yet, the mechanism of Sec insertion and the regulation of selenoprotein synthesis in mammalian cells are not completely understood. Future Directions: Omics technologies offer new possibilities to study selenoproteins and mechanisms of Sec incorporation in cells, tissues, and organisms. More Information

Kaya A, Mariotti M, Tyshkovskiy A, Zhou X, Hulke ML, Ma S, Gerashchenko MV, Koren A, Gladyshev VN. (2020) Molecular signatures of aneuploidy-driven adaptive evolution. Nat Commun. 11(1), 588.

AbstractAlteration of normal ploidy (aneuploidy) can have a number of opposing effects, such as unbalancing protein abundances and inhibiting cell growth but also accelerating genetic diversification and rapid adaptation. The interplay of these detrimental and beneficial effects remains puzzling. Here, to understand how cells develop tolerance to aneuploidy, we subject disomic (i.e. with an extra chromosome copy) strains of yeast to long-term experimental evolution under strong selection, by forcing disomy maintenance and daily population dilution. We characterize mutations, karyotype alterations and gene expression changes, and dissect the associated molecular strategies. Cells with different extra chromosomes accumulated mutations at distinct rates and displayed diverse adaptive events. They tended to evolve towards normal ploidy through chromosomal DNA loss and gene expression changes. We identify genes with recurrent mutations and altered expression in multiple lines, revealing a variant that improves growth under genotoxic stresses. These findings support rapid evolvability of disomic strains that can be used to characterize fitness effects of mutations under different stress conditions. More Information

Smekalova EM, Gerashchenko MV, O’Connor PBF, Whittaker CA, Kauffman KJ, Fefilova AS, Zatsepin TS, Bogorad RL, Baranov PV, Langer R, Gladyshev VN, Anderson DG, Koteliansky V. (2020) In Vivo RNAi-Mediated eIF3m Knockdown Affects Ribosome Biogenesis and Transcription but Has Limited Impact on mRNA-Specific Translation. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 19, 252-266.

AbstractTranslation is an essential biological process, and dysregulation is associated with a range of diseases including ribosomopathies, diabetes, and cancer. Here, we examine translation dysregulation in vivo using RNAi to knock down the m-subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF3 in the mouse liver. Transcriptome sequencing, ribosome profiling, whole proteome, and phosphoproteome analyses show that eIF3m deficiency leads to the transcriptional response and changes in cellular translation that yield few detectable differences in the translation of particular mRNAs. The transcriptional response fell into two main categories: ribosome biogenesis (increased transcription of ribosomal proteins) and cell metabolism (alterations in lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid, and drug metabolism). Analysis of ribosome biogenesis reveals inhibition of rRNA processing, highlighting decoupling of rRNA synthesis and ribosomal protein gene transcription in response to eIF3m knockdown. Interestingly, a similar reduction in eIF3m protein levels is associated with induction of the mTOR pathway in vitro but not in vivo. Overall, this work highlights the utility of a RNAi-based in vivo approach for studying the regulation of mammalian translation in vivo. More Information

Santesmasses D, Mariotti M, Gladyshev VN. (2020) Tolerance to Selenoprotein Loss Differs between Human and Mouse. Mol Biol Evol. 37(2), 341-354.

AbstractMouse has emerged as the most common model organism in biomedicine. Here, we analyzed the tolerance to the loss-of-function (LoF) of selenoprotein genes, estimated from mouse knockouts and the frequency of LoF variants in humans. We found not only a general correspondence in tolerance (e.g., GPX1, GPX2) and intolerance (TXNRD1, SELENOT) to gene LoF between humans and mice but also important differences. Notably, humans are intolerant to the loss of iodothyronine deiodinases, whereas their deletion in mice leads to mild phenotypes, and this is consistent with phenotype differences in selenocysteine machinery loss between these species. In contrast, loss of TXNRD2 and GPX4 is lethal in mice but may be tolerated in humans. We further identified the first human SELENOP variants coding for proteins varying in selenocysteine content. Finally, our analyses suggested that premature termination codons in selenoprotein genes trigger nonsense-mediated decay, but do this inefficiently when UGA codon is gained. Overall, our study highlights differences in the physiological importance of selenoproteins between human and mouse. More Information